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Nursing School

Fetus/Embryo Quiz
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Fetus and embryo questions

 

1.  Development after fertilization is divided into what 3 phases of  intrauterine development?

 

*  Cellular multiplication, cellular differentiation, development of organ systems

2.  Fertilization occurs in ___ hours and implants w/ in ___-____ days.

*  24, 6-7

3.  Cellular multiplication is aka ________period, it is the “period of the ovum.”

*  Pre-embryonic

4. Cellular multiplication begins as a ___, which moves thru fallopian tube into the cavity of the ___, this take __days or more.

*  Zygote, uterus, 3

5.  Zygotic period is from ___hours until ___days, when the sperm fuses w/ the ovum.

*  24, 14

6.  The zygote enters a period of rapid division called _____, the cell divides into 2 cells--4cells---8cells, these cells are called ________.

*  cleavage, blastomeres

7.  The blastomeres eventually form a solid ball of cells called the ____.

*  morula

8. Upon reaching the uterus the morula floats freely for a few days and then a cavity forms w/in the cell mass, this inner solid mass of cells is called the _____.

*  blastocyst

9.  The blastocyst develops into the ___ and embryonic fetal membrane called the ___.

*  embryo, amnion

10.  The ___ are the outer cells of the blastocyst and develops into the other fetal embryonic membrane called the ____; also the first membrane to develop.

*  trophoblast, chorion

11.  The trophoblast also gives way to the ___portion of the placenta and produces the hormone ___ that allows pregnancy to be sustained and allows the ___ to cont. to grow.

*  fetal, hCG, endometrium

12.  The trophoblast also gives rise to the ___ __ , these obtain O2 and nutrients from maternal bloodstream and dispose of __ and __ products into maternal bloodstream.

*  chorionic villi, CO2 and waste

13.  ____ occurs in 6-7 days after fertilization.

*  implantation

14.  While floating in the uterine cavity the blastocyst is nourished by ____ ___.

*  uterine glands

15.  The uterine glands secrete a mix of ___, ___, and ____.

*  lipids, glycogen, mucopolysaccharide

16.  The blasocyst attaches itself to the surface of the ____ for further nourishment, this site of implantation is where the ___ will attach and develop.

*  endometrium, placenta

17.  The placenta is made up of a ____ portion and a ___ portion.

*  fetal, maternal

18.  Normally the placenta implants in the ___ portion of the uterus where there is a rich ___ supply, this prevents placenta from attaching too deeply into ___ muscle making it easier to deliver at birth.

*  upper, blood, uterine

19.  The endometrium thickens, cells enlarge, and after implantation the endometrium is called the ____.

*  decidua

20.  After birth the deciduas is discarded into the vaginal discharge called ___.

*  lochia

21.  The ___ or the lining that was the endometrium is made up of 3 portions?

*  decidua, deciduabasalis, deciduacapsularis, deciduavera

22.  The ____ is where implantation takes place (nidation), the ___ part of the placenta develops from this portion of the decidua.

*  deciduabasalis, maternal

23.  The part of the decidua  hat covers the blastocyst is called the _____.

*  deciduacapsularis

24.  The part of the decidua that lines the rest of the uterine cavity and doen’t have direct contact w/ the embryo is ____.

*  deciduavera

25.  The zygote is from _hours until _days old, the embryo is from __days until _-_wks.

*  24, 14, 14, 8-10

26.  The most critical time in development is during the ____ period, this is when the principle organs are being established and cells multiplying.

*  embryonic

27.  Environmental agents that can harm the developing embryo are called ___, these include smoking, alcohol, drugs, meds, pollution, radiation, virus, infections.

*  teratogens.

28.  Teratogens will either not effect the __ or the damage can be so severe the a ___ __ occurs.

*  embryo, spontaneous abortion

29.  If an embryo survives the teratogen it will either cause ___ ___ ; cell that was dividing dies off, or the teratogen will alter and destroy __ function; both will cause ___ abnormalties.

*  cellular necrosis, cell, congenital

30.  By the end of the __period all main organ systems have been established, this occurs at weeks __-__.

*  embryonic, 8-10

31.  The second stage of intrauterine development is called cellular differentiation aka ___/___ membranes.

*  embryonic/fetal

32.  The fetal membranes are the ___ and the ___, these protect and support the __ as it grows and develops, they begin to form at time of ___.

*  chorion, amnion, embryo, implantation

33.  The ___ is the inner membrane and originates from the __layer (primary germ layer).

*  amnion, ectoderm

34.  Inside the amion membrane is the ____ ___ which is filled w/ ___ ___.

*  amniotic cavity, amniotic fluid

35.  At term (38-42wks) the amniotic cavity may contain ___-___cc of fluid, w/ a pH of __-___ ; slightly alkaline or neutral (urine averages 6, but can be 5-7).

*  500-1500, 7-7.25

36.  Amniotic fluid is derived initially from ___ serum and ___ cells

*  maternal, amnion

37.  After the __th month of gestation the fetus begins to swallow the amniotic fluid and urinates; helping w/ amount of fluid.

*  5th

38.  Amniotic fluid is composed of ?

*  albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, biliruben, fat, inorganic salt, epithelial cells, leukocytes, enzymes, and lanugo

39.  Amniotic fluid is replaced every __hours and the volume maybe associated w/ fetal death and abnormities.

*  3

40.  It is the ___ that causes the amount of change in the amniotic fluid.

*  condition

41.  ___ is >2 L, associated w/ hydrocephally, Downs, and malformation of ___ ___.

*  polyhydraminos, GI tract

42.  ___ is < 400 cc of fluid, associated w/ poor fetal __ development, __defects and defects in ___ system.

*  oligohydraminos, lung, GI, renal

43.  The embryo and fetus __ survive in utero w/out liver, kidneys thanks to the ___.

*  can, placenta

44.  Functions of the amniotic fluid include protecting the __ from direct trauma by distributing and equalizing ___. 

*  fetus, impact

45.  The amniotic fluid separates the fetus and embryo from the ___membranes and it also allows for freedom of ___ which permits musculo-skeletal growth.

*  fetal, movement

46.  Amniotic fluid prevents loss of __ and maintains constant fetal body temp, it also serves as a source of oral ___.

*  heat, fluids

47.  The amniotic fluid prevents ___ of skin and cord and reduces umbilical cord ___, amniotic fluid also acts as an ___ and ___ system.

*  adhesion, pressure, excretion, collection

48.  The are two embryonic structures that form during cellular differentiation?

*  yolk sac, body stalk

49.  The yolk sac is small and functions early in ___life, it develops as a 2nd cavity in the ____ about __-__ days after conception.

*  embryonic, blastocyst, 8-9

50.  The yolk sac forms primitive ___ during the 1st __ wks of development.

*  RBC, 6

51.  The yolk sac transfers nutrients and O2 to the ___ while placental (fetal) ____ is being developed.

*  fetus, circulation

52.  As the embryo develops the yolk sac is incorporated into the body as the primary __ system or “___ ___” where it degenerates.

*  digestive, primitive gut

53.  Failure for the degeneration of the yolk sac leads to ___ ___.

*  Meckels Diverticulitis

54.  The other embryonic structure is the body stalk that attaches from the ___ to the __.

*  embryo, yolk sac

55.  The body stalk will eventually elongate and become the__ __, it initially contains 4 vessels, 1 will atrophy and other 3 become __ arteries and __ vein.

*  umbilical cord, 2, 1

56.  If born w/ incorrect # of vessels in cord this indicated abnormality in the __ system and __ system.

*  GI , cardiac

57.  The last stage of intrauterine development is the development of the ___ systems.

*  organ

58.  Three weeks after conception the mass of the ___ cells differentiate into 3 germ layers ___   ____  ___, all tissues, organs, and organ systems develop from these.

*  blastocyst, ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm

59.  The ectoderm turns into the?

*  epidermis, sweat glands, nails, hair follicles, lens of eyes

60.  The mesoderm turns into the?

*  dermis, wall of digestive tract, kidneys, ureter, reproductive organs, connective tissue, muscles, skeleton

61,  The endoderm turns into the>

*  respiratory tract epithelium, epithelium lining of digestive tract

62.  The __part of the placenta is red, fleshy, disc-like, while the __ part is gray and shiny

*  maternal, fetal

63.  The __ serves as the kidneys, lungs, endocrine system and GI tract of fetus, it is fully formed and functioning by the __ month and will weigh __ at birth.

* placenta, 3rd, 1 lbs

64.  The umbilical cord contains vessels that are intertwined and they are protected from pressure by a transparent, bluish jelly-like substance called ___ ___.

*  whartons jelly

65. When baby born if cord wrapped around neck or shoulders called a ___ ___.

*  Nuchal cord

66.  The Main function of the placenta is to transfer __ and ___ to baby and take away __ and ___ from baby and excrete via lungs and kidneys.

*  O2, nutrients, Co2, waste

67.  The fetus is from __-__ wks up to birth (___-___wks.)

*  8-10, 38-42

68.  The __ stage is the longest part of development and still vulnerable to ___ because these agents may still interrupt functions of development, esp the ____ system.

*  fetal, teratogens, CNS

69.  __  __ is the ability of the fetus to survive outside of utero, _-_ wks w/ intervention.

*  fetal viability, 22-25

70.  Fetal survival (any stage) depends of maturity of the ___ to direct respiration and control body temp as well as maturity of __ and __ production which helps lungs expand.

*  CNS, lungs, surfactant

71.  Fetal ___ involves nutrients and O2 going from mom thru placenta to baby because the __ not functioning yet.

*  circulation, lungs

72.  Fetal circulation contains special vessels that shunt blood around the ___, only a small amount circulates thru the ___for nutrition.

*  lungs, lungs

73.  The five fetal vessels are?

*  ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, umbilical arteries (2), umbilical vein (1), foramen ovale

74.  The process of fetal circulation begins w/ oxygenated blood flowing up cord thru __ __ and passing thru the ___ ___ __, on its way to I.V.C. it branches off into 2 parts; part of the blood goes thru ___, but most passes thru ____ ____.

*  umbilical vein, inferior vena cava, liver, ductus venosus

75.  From the inferior vena cava the blood flow into the __ ___ and then to the __ ___ thru special structure called the ___ ___.  Blood then goes into ___ ___ and out thru __.

*  right atrium, left atrium, foramen ovale, left ventricle, aorta

76.  The blood that circulates thru the arms and head returns thru the ___ ___ ___ and back down to the ___ ___, the blood is then deflected downward into the ___  ____and out thru the ___ ___.

*  superior vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries

77.  Part of the blood goes to the ___ , but most goes thru ___ to the ___  ___.  The blood in the aorta (w/ exception that goes to head and upper extremities) passes downward to supply the trunk and LE.

*  lungs, aorta, ductus arteriosus

78.  Most of the blood finds its way thru the ___ ___ or ___ ___ and back to the cord to the ___ by way of ___ ___ where it is deoxygenated and circulated again.

*  internal ileac, hypogastric arteries, placenta, umbilical arteries

79.  The vessel w/ the highest O2 content is the ___ ___ where circulation begins, here is a higher O2 content going to head, heart, and brain, vs. LE

*  umbilical vein

80.  Because of way blood circulated in utero (higher O2 to UE) newborns develop from top down (hold up head---sit--stand--walk), this is called the ___  ____  ___ ___ ___ ___.

*  Cephalocaudal proximal distal law of development

81.  Placental circulation ceases after birth and the __ take over, this alters character of blood in vessels and makes most useless, vessels close in two ways ___ and__.

*  lungs, functional, anatomical

82.  ___ closure occurs after cord is cut making vessels non-functional, occurs w/in first few minutes or hours after birth.

*  functional

83.  ___ closure is when the vessels degenerate or become a new structure.

*  anatomical

84.  Once the umbilical vein/arteries are cut they become filled w/ ___ __, the umbilical arteries become a ___ ___ taking up to __months.

*  clotted blood, fibrous cord, 2

85.  The umbilical vein becomes a round ligament of the ___ and takes __ months.

*  liver, 3

86.  After the umbilical cord is cut a large amount of blood goes to the __ and ___ and causes pressure in both the left and right ___ and causes the ___ ___ to close, it remains closed and degenerates, may take up to __ year.

*  heart, lungs, atrium, foramen ovale, 1

87.  The ductus arteriosus and ductus venosus will shrivel up and be converted into __ __ and ___, takes up to __-__ months to close anatomically.

*  fibrous cord, ligament, 2-3

88.  Fetal age is estimated using ___ ___, count back 3 months from first day of last menstrual period and add 7 days. (ex. August  10, 2005 = due on ____?)

*  Negeles rule, May 17, 2006

89.  Fetal well-being tests include?

*  ultrasound, biophysical profile, amniocentesis, CVS, NST, CST, AFP

90.  After 40 weeks the __ becomes old and baby can become undernourished and mom can develop __ BP.

*  placenta, high

91.  A biophysical profile evals fetal health by observing 5 variables (scored 0-2)?

*  fetal breathing, gross body movement, fetal tone, amniotic fluid, fetal heart activity

92.  Amniocentesis tests for genetic abnorm and can estimate __ maturity, done at __wks.

*  lung, 14

93.  Chorionic Villi sampling used to determine genetic problems, and done around wk _.

*  10

94.  A __ __ __ looks for increase in fetal HR w/ movement, takes 20-30 minutes.

*  non stress test

95.  A contraction stress test is done 2 ways?

*  oxytocin or pitocin challenge test, nipple stimulating test

96.  The pitocin challenge test admin ___ and causes contractions, looking for __ contractions of good quality in a ___ min period; watching fetus HR during contractions and O2 sat.

*  pitocin, 3, 10

97.  The nipple stimulating stress test causes release of ___ which causes contractions.

*  oxytocin

98.  The ___ tests the maternal circulation or amniotic fluid for AFP.

*  alpha-fetoprotein screening

99.  The maternal serum AFP is ___ in infants w/ open neural tube defects, ancephaly, and multiple gestation.

*  elevated

100.  __ AFP associated w/ Down’s syndrome, can test around weeks __-___.

*  low, 15-22

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