Fetus and embryo
1. Development after fertilization is divided into what 3 phases of
* Cellular multiplication, cellular differentiation, development of
2. Fertilization occurs in ___ hours and implants w/ in ___-____ days.
* 24, 6-7
3. Cellular multiplication is aka ________period, it is the “period
of the ovum.”
4. Cellular multiplication begins as a ___, which moves thru fallopian tube into the cavity of the ___, this take
__days or more.
* Zygote, uterus, 3
5. Zygotic period is from ___hours until ___days, when the sperm fuses
w/ the ovum.
* 24, 14
6. The zygote enters a period of rapid division called _____, the
cell divides into 2 cells--4cells---8cells, these cells are called ________.
* cleavage, blastomeres
7. The blastomeres eventually form a solid ball of cells called the
8. Upon reaching the uterus the morula floats freely for a few days and then a cavity forms w/in the cell mass,
this inner solid mass of cells is called the _____.
9. The blastocyst develops into the ___ and embryonic fetal membrane
called the ___.
* embryo, amnion
10. The ___ are the outer cells of the blastocyst and develops into
the other fetal embryonic membrane called the ____; also the first membrane to develop.
* trophoblast, chorion
11. The trophoblast also gives way to the ___portion of the placenta
and produces the hormone ___ that allows pregnancy to be sustained and allows the ___ to cont. to grow.
* fetal, hCG, endometrium
12. The trophoblast also gives rise to the ___ __ , these obtain O2
and nutrients from maternal bloodstream and dispose of __ and __ products into maternal bloodstream.
* chorionic villi, CO2 and waste
13. ____ occurs in 6-7 days after fertilization.
14. While floating in the uterine cavity the blastocyst is nourished
by ____ ___.
* uterine glands
15. The uterine glands secrete a mix of ___, ___, and ____.
* lipids, glycogen, mucopolysaccharide
16. The blasocyst attaches itself to the surface of the ____ for further
nourishment, this site of implantation is where the ___ will attach and develop.
* endometrium, placenta
17. The placenta is made up of a ____ portion and a ___ portion.
* fetal, maternal
18. Normally the placenta implants in the ___ portion of the uterus
where there is a rich ___ supply, this prevents placenta from attaching too deeply into ___ muscle making it easier to deliver
* upper, blood, uterine
19. The endometrium thickens, cells enlarge, and after implantation
the endometrium is called the ____.
20. After birth the deciduas is discarded into the vaginal discharge
21. The ___ or the lining that was the endometrium is made up of 3
* decidua, deciduabasalis, deciduacapsularis, deciduavera
22. The ____ is where implantation takes place (nidation), the ___
part of the placenta develops from this portion of the decidua.
* deciduabasalis, maternal
23. The part of the decidua
hat covers the blastocyst is called the _____.
24. The part of the decidua that lines the rest of the uterine cavity
and doen’t have direct contact w/ the embryo is ____.
25. The zygote is from _hours until _days old, the embryo is from
__days until _-_wks.
* 24, 14, 14, 8-10
26. The most critical time in development is during the ____ period,
this is when the principle organs are being established and cells multiplying.
27. Environmental agents that can harm the developing embryo are called
___, these include smoking, alcohol, drugs, meds, pollution, radiation, virus, infections.
28. Teratogens will either not effect the __ or the damage can be
so severe the a ___ __ occurs.
* embryo, spontaneous abortion
29. If an embryo survives the teratogen it will either cause ___ ___
; cell that was dividing dies off, or the teratogen will alter and destroy __ function; both will cause ___ abnormalties.
* cellular necrosis, cell, congenital
30. By the end of the __period all main organ systems have been established,
this occurs at weeks __-__.
* embryonic, 8-10
31. The second stage of intrauterine development is called cellular
differentiation aka ___/___ membranes.
32. The fetal membranes are the ___ and the ___, these protect and
support the __ as it grows and develops, they begin to form at time of ___.
* chorion, amnion, embryo, implantation
33. The ___ is the inner membrane and originates from the __layer
(primary germ layer).
* amnion, ectoderm
34. Inside the amion membrane is the ____ ___ which is filled w/ ___
* amniotic cavity, amniotic fluid
35. At term (38-42wks) the amniotic cavity may contain ___-___cc of
fluid, w/ a pH of __-___ ; slightly alkaline or neutral (urine averages 6, but can be 5-7).
* 500-1500, 7-7.25
36. Amniotic fluid is derived initially from ___ serum and ___ cells
* maternal, amnion
37. After the __th month of gestation the fetus begins to swallow
the amniotic fluid and urinates; helping w/ amount of fluid.
38. Amniotic fluid is composed of ?
* albumin, urea, uric acid, creatinine, biliruben, fat, inorganic
salt, epithelial cells, leukocytes, enzymes, and lanugo
39. Amniotic fluid is replaced every __hours and the volume maybe
associated w/ fetal death and abnormities.
40. It is the ___ that causes the amount of change in the amniotic
41. ___ is >2 L, associated w/ hydrocephally, Downs, and malformation
of ___ ___.
* polyhydraminos, GI tract
42. ___ is < 400 cc of fluid, associated w/ poor fetal __ development,
__defects and defects in ___ system.
* oligohydraminos, lung, GI, renal
43. The embryo and fetus __ survive in utero w/out liver, kidneys
thanks to the ___.
* can, placenta
44. Functions of the amniotic fluid include protecting the __ from
direct trauma by distributing and equalizing ___.
* fetus, impact
45. The amniotic fluid separates the fetus and embryo from the ___membranes
and it also allows for freedom of ___ which permits musculo-skeletal growth.
* fetal, movement
46. Amniotic fluid prevents loss of __ and maintains constant fetal
body temp, it also serves as a source of oral ___.
* heat, fluids
47. The amniotic fluid prevents ___ of skin and cord and reduces umbilical
cord ___, amniotic fluid also acts as an ___ and ___ system.
* adhesion, pressure, excretion, collection
48. The are two embryonic structures that form during cellular differentiation?
* yolk sac, body stalk
49. The yolk sac is small and functions early in ___life, it develops
as a 2nd cavity in the ____ about __-__ days after conception.
* embryonic, blastocyst, 8-9
50. The yolk sac forms primitive ___ during the 1st __
wks of development.
* RBC, 6
51. The yolk sac transfers nutrients and O2 to the ___ while placental
(fetal) ____ is being developed.
* fetus, circulation
52. As the embryo develops the yolk sac is incorporated into the body
as the primary __ system or “___ ___” where it degenerates.
* digestive, primitive gut
53. Failure for the degeneration of the yolk sac leads to ___ ___.
* Meckels Diverticulitis
54. The other embryonic structure is the body stalk that attaches
from the ___ to the __.
* embryo, yolk sac
55. The body stalk will eventually elongate and become the__ __, it
initially contains 4 vessels, 1 will atrophy and other 3 become __ arteries and __ vein.
* umbilical cord, 2, 1
56. If born w/ incorrect # of vessels in cord this indicated abnormality
in the __ system and __ system.
* GI , cardiac
57. The last stage of intrauterine development is the development
of the ___ systems.
58. Three weeks after conception the mass of the ___ cells differentiate
into 3 germ layers ___ ____ ___,
all tissues, organs, and organ systems develop from these.
* blastocyst, ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
59. The ectoderm turns into the?
* epidermis, sweat glands, nails, hair follicles, lens of eyes
60. The mesoderm turns into the?
* dermis, wall of digestive tract, kidneys, ureter, reproductive organs,
connective tissue, muscles, skeleton
61, The endoderm turns into the>
* respiratory tract epithelium, epithelium lining of digestive tract
62. The __part of the placenta is red, fleshy, disc-like, while the
__ part is gray and shiny
* maternal, fetal
63. The __ serves as the kidneys, lungs, endocrine system and GI tract
of fetus, it is fully formed and functioning by the __ month and will weigh __ at birth.
* placenta, 3rd, 1 ½ lbs
64. The umbilical cord contains vessels that are intertwined and they
are protected from pressure by a transparent, bluish jelly-like substance called ___ ___.
* whartons jelly
65. When baby born if cord wrapped around neck or shoulders called a ___ ___.
* Nuchal cord
66. The Main function of the placenta is to transfer
__ and ___ to baby and take away __ and ___ from baby and excrete via lungs and kidneys.
* O2, nutrients, Co2, waste
67. The fetus is from __-__ wks up to birth (___-___wks.)
* 8-10, 38-42
68. The __ stage is the longest part of development and still vulnerable
to ___ because these agents may still interrupt functions of development, esp the ____ system.
* fetal, teratogens, CNS
69. __ __ is the ability
of the fetus to survive outside of utero, _-_ wks w/ intervention.
* fetal viability, 22-25
70. Fetal survival (any stage) depends of maturity of the ___ to direct
respiration and control body temp as well as maturity of __ and __ production which helps lungs expand.
* CNS, lungs, surfactant
71. Fetal ___ involves nutrients and O2 going from mom thru placenta
to baby because the __ not functioning yet.
* circulation, lungs
72. Fetal circulation contains special vessels that shunt blood around
the ___, only a small amount circulates thru the ___for nutrition.
* lungs, lungs
73. The five fetal vessels are?
* ductus arteriosus, ductus venosus, umbilical arteries (2), umbilical
vein (1), foramen ovale
74. The process of fetal circulation begins w/ oxygenated blood flowing
up cord thru __ __ and passing thru the ___ ___ __, on its way to I.V.C. it branches off into 2 parts; part of the blood goes
thru ___, but most passes thru ____ ____.
* umbilical vein, inferior vena cava, liver, ductus venosus
75. From the inferior vena cava the blood flow into the __ ___ and
then to the __ ___ thru special structure called the ___ ___. Blood then goes
into ___ ___ and out thru __.
* right atrium, left atrium, foramen ovale, left ventricle, aorta
76. The blood that circulates thru the arms and head returns thru
the ___ ___ ___ and back down to the ___ ___, the blood is then deflected downward into the ___ ____and out thru the ___ ___.
* superior vena cava, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries
77. Part of the blood goes to the ___ , but most goes thru ___ to
the ___ ___. The blood in the aorta
(w/ exception that goes to head and upper extremities) passes downward to supply the trunk and LE.
* lungs, aorta, ductus arteriosus
78. Most of the blood finds its way thru the ___ ___ or ___ ___ and
back to the cord to the ___ by way of ___ ___ where it is deoxygenated and circulated again.
* internal ileac, hypogastric arteries, placenta, umbilical arteries
79. The vessel w/ the highest O2 content is the ___ ___ where circulation
begins, here is a higher O2 content going to head, heart, and brain, vs. LE
* umbilical vein
80. Because of way blood circulated in utero (higher O2 to UE) newborns
develop from top down (hold up head---sit--stand--walk), this is called the ___ ____ ___ ___ ___ ___.
* Cephalocaudal proximal distal law of development
81. Placental circulation ceases after birth and the __ take over,
this alters character of blood in vessels and makes most useless, vessels close in two ways ___ and__.
* lungs, functional, anatomical
82. ___ closure occurs after cord is cut making vessels non-functional,
occurs w/in first few minutes or hours after birth.
83. ___ closure is when the vessels degenerate or become a new structure.
84. Once the umbilical vein/arteries are cut they become filled w/
___ __, the umbilical arteries become a ___ ___ taking up to __months.
* clotted blood, fibrous cord, 2
85. The umbilical vein becomes a round ligament of the ___ and takes
* liver, 3
86. After the umbilical cord is cut a large amount of blood goes to
the __ and ___ and causes pressure in both the left and right ___ and causes the ___ ___ to close, it remains closed and degenerates,
may take up to __ year.
* heart, lungs, atrium, foramen ovale, 1
87. The ductus arteriosus and ductus venosus will shrivel up and be
converted into __ __ and ___, takes up to __-__ months to close anatomically.
* fibrous cord, ligament, 2-3
88. Fetal age is estimated using ___ ___, count back 3 months from
first day of last menstrual period and add 7 days. (ex. August 10, 2005 = due
* Negeles rule, May 17, 2006
89. Fetal well-being tests include?
* ultrasound, biophysical profile, amniocentesis, CVS, NST, CST, AFP
90. After 40 weeks the __ becomes old and baby can become undernourished
and mom can develop __ BP.
* placenta, high
91. A biophysical profile evals fetal health by observing 5 variables
* fetal breathing, gross body movement, fetal tone, amniotic fluid,
fetal heart activity
92. Amniocentesis tests for genetic abnorm and can estimate __ maturity,
done at __wks.
* lung, 14
93. Chorionic Villi sampling used to determine genetic problems, and
done around wk _.
94. A __ __ __ looks for increase in fetal HR w/ movement, takes 20-30
* non stress test
95. A contraction stress test is done 2 ways?
* oxytocin or pitocin challenge test, nipple stimulating test
96. The pitocin challenge test admin ___ and causes contractions,
looking for __ contractions of good quality in a ___ min period; watching fetus HR during contractions and O2 sat.
* pitocin, 3, 10
97. The nipple stimulating stress test causes release of ___ which
98. The ___ tests the maternal circulation or amniotic fluid for AFP.
* alpha-fetoprotein screening
99. The maternal serum AFP is ___ in infants w/ open neural tube defects,
ancephaly, and multiple gestation.
100. __ AFP associated w/ Down’s syndrome, can test around weeks
* low, 15-22