1. Middle age is from __-___ yrs old and aged is from ___-____.
* 45-65, 65-death
2. This group is the biggest group of voters, planning for retirement, and have the highest divorce rate?
* middle age
3. This group is adjusting to retirement, death of spouse/loved ones, hanging out w/ own age, volunteering,
and may be giving up driver’s license?
4. The aged are in Eriksons ___vs. ____and it is often assumed the elderly are old and non-productive, belong
in a home, confused and senile, and HOH w/ poor vision.
* integrity vs. despair
5. Young adult thru middle age suffer physiological changes that are influenced by these 4 things?
* heredity, environment, lifestyle, stress
6. Physiological changes of the middle ages include blood vessels become less ____, vessels become obstructed
by ___ or ____, cardiac output ___ and chronic illness begins.
* elastic, calcium deposits or fatty acids, decreases
7. Physiological changes of the aged include stroke volume and cardiac output diminish by ___-___%, the HR
at rest remains unchanged but takes ___ to return to normal after exertion, vessels continue to lose ____, valves ___, and
calcification and fibrosis of arteries continues.
* 30-40, longer, elasticity, stiffen
8. T or F: low O2 is a common cause of death in elderly due to
decreased blood flow to heart/brain/liver/lungs/kidneys?
9. Cardiovascular assessment includes an H&P. This includes
such things as?
* smoking, family hx, occupation, meds, illness, observations, and touch
10. _______ is a broad term applied to any number of pathological conditions where there is thickening, hardening,
and loss of elasticity of arteries.
11. ____ is thickening and hardening due to placque development.
12. Tx for atherosclerosis includes___ and ___, and medications such as ____ and ____.
* diet changes, cessation of smoking, vasodilators, hyperlipidemics
13. Meds used for atherosclerosis include the vasodilator ___ and hyperlipidemic meds such as ____, _____,_____,
* hydralazine, zocor, lipitor, tricor, crestor
14. T or F: HTN is more prevalent in African Americans, elderly,
15. Name the 6 causes of HTN?
* heredity (biggest factor), arteriosclerosis, diet, stress, increased workload to heart (obesity), kidney
16. Pre-hypertension which may require meds is __-__/____-____.
17. When assessing BP make sure you have the right size ___, you check VS before giving meds, and you assess
for signs/symptoms of HTN such as ___, ___, ____, ___, ____.
* cuff, headache, epistaxis, blurred vision, dyspnea, dizziness, red face
18. Pt teaching for HTN includes ___, taking your ___ daily, and taking your medications daily.
* diet, weights
19. T or F: It is normal to have dizzy spells when standing up
fast when you first start taking BP meds (orthostatic hypotension)
20. Name the 5 classes of anti-hypertensive meds?
* ace inhibitors, angiotension II receptor blockers, beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers,
21. ____ ___ (angiotensin-converting enzyme) block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, it also
decreases aldosterone levels; this drug results in _____.
* ace inhibitors, vasodilation
22. _____ is a vasoconstrictor
that will increase BP and ___ will also increase BP.
* angiotensin II, aldosterone
23. Ace inhibitors end in “___” and there are 6 types?
* “PRIL,” captopril, benazepril, enalapril, quinapril,
24. Captopril = _____, benazepril = ____, enalapril = _____, quinapril = ______, ramipril = ______, lisinopril
* capoten, lotensin, vasotec, accupril, altace, prinivil or zestril
25. ______receptor blockers go directly to angiotensin II receptor, this blocks vasoconstriction, secretion
of aldosterone, and the effects are seen on the vascular ___muscle and the ___glands.
* angiotensin II, smooth, adrenal
26. Angiotensin II receptor blockers end in “___” and the 3 types are?
* “TAN,” losartan, irbesartan, valsartan
27. Losartan = ____, irbesartan = _____, valsartan = ______.
* cozaar, avapro, diovan
28. ____blockers reduce myocardial stimulation, reduces oxygen demand by heart, decreases myocardial contractility,
this med will not only decrease BP, but ___ as well.
* beta-adrenergic blockers, HR
29. T or F: Beta-adrenergic blockers are the most common HTN drugs
30. Beta-adrenergic blockers end in “ __” and they are 5 types?
* “OLOL,” propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol, timolol
31. Propranolol = ____, atenolol = ____, metoprolol = ____, nadolol = _____.
* inderal, tenormin, lopressor, corgard
32. ____ ___ blockers inhibit the transport of calcium into the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells.
* calcium channel
33. T or F: Calcium into heart muscle will excite heart and cause arrhythmias and cause increased BP
34. Name the 4 types of calcium channel blockers?
* diltiazem (cardizem), verapamil (calan), nifedipine (procardia), amlodipine (norvasc)
35. ______relax smooth muscle in the arterioles resulting in vasodilation, this was first group of anti HTN
drugs discovered, examples include ___ and ___.
* vasodilators, hydrolazine (apresoline), minoxidil (loniten)
36. Name the other three classes of cardiovascular meds?
* diuretics, anti-platelet agents, and anti-arrhythmics
37. Name the 4 types of diuretics?
* lasix (furosemide), bumex (bumetanide), HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide), aldactone
38. Lasix is a diuretic that removes fluid quickly and requires a __ supplement.
39. Bumex is also a diuretic that requires a K+ supplement, it works slower than Lasix. Both of these drugs inhibit the reabsorption of ___ and __ in the loop of Henle.
* Na, Cl
40. HCTZ is a diuretic that inhibits reabsorption of Na in the
___ ___ .
* distal tubule
41. Aldactone is a __ sparing diuretic that causes the loss of ___ and __, but saves K+ and ___ ions.
* potassium, sodium bicarb, Ca, hydrogen
42. Name the 4 types of anti-platelets “blood thinners?”
* plavix, ASA, trental, pletal
43. ____ and ___ are two common blood thinners that inhibit platelet aggregation (stops clumping together which
leads to clots which leads to strokes and MI’s.
* Plavix, ASA (aspirin)
44. ___is an anti-platelet agent that increases flexibility of RBC’s to decrease blood viscosity, it
works great for intermittent claudicating.
45. ___ ___ is when blood gets thick and sluggish and pools in LE, causes leg pain and edema.
* intermittent claudicating
46. ____ is an anti-platelet that inhibits is enzyme that results in vasodilation and also used for intermittent
47. This type of drug increase the force (strength or power) of the myocardial contraction; increases cardiac
output and decreases the heart rate by decreasing the conduction thru the SA and AV nodes?
48. ____ aka ____ is an anti-arrhythmics that is often given, the apical pulse must be 60 or above to administer.
* Lanoxin (digoxin)
49. Name three common cardiac dx tests?
* EKG, Echo, Cardiac Catheterization
50. An ____ measures electrical impulses across the heart, an ___ uses ultrasonic waves to detect valve disorders,
congenital disorders, fluid around the heart, and heart tumors, the ____determines BP and blood flow into the heart chambers
(accurately measures blood gases)
* ekg, echo, cardiac cath
51. The changes in the respiratory system are influenced by these factors as you age?
* heredity, lifestyle, environment
52. T or F: Physiological changes of the respiratory system are
gradual from middle age to aged, unless disease process interferes
53. As you age the ribcage becomes stiff from _____ and the air sacs decrease and die off causing changes in
the alveolocapillary membrane structure, there is also ___ respiratory muscle strength, ___cough and gag reflex, as well as
___ lung expansion.
* calcification, decreased, decreased, decreased
54. Respiratory assessment looks at your smoking hx, family hx, occupation, last___xray, medications, and respiratory
infections. The physical is done by looking and touching (SOB, breath sounds,
skin temp, RR, Wheezing, etc…)
55. T or F: respiratory system causes fatigue more than any other
system in the body when it is stressed
56. ______ is an acute infection of the parenchyma of the lungs; most commonly caused by bacteria.
57. Pneumonia occurs when an organism enters the____, multiplies and produces inflammatory response, then there
is an outpouring of ___and accumulation and migration of ___(first defense against infection).
* alveoli, fluid, neutrophils
58. Assessment of pneumonia includes an ___in temp which may be abrupt w/ chills and shaking, tachyon/dyspnea,
___chest pain, cough w/sputum, crackles/rales or wheezing.
59. Dx of pneumonia includes assessing sign/symptoms a ___xray and a ___Sample.
* chest, sputum
60. Nursing care of pneumonia is to relieve _____distress, promote removal of drainage, control infection,
maintain fluid and nutritional intake, and promote ___ and comfort.
* respiratory, rest
61. T or F: Nursing care for pneumonia includes discarding tissues/sputum
properly, get pt OOB for meals as tol, and putting pillow behind shoulder blades to help w/ lung expansion.
62. Medications used to tx pneumonia include IV antibiotics such as ____, ____, ____, ____, PO meds on d/c
inclue ____, _____, ____, _____.
* zithromax, rocephin, cipro, cefobid, zithromax, cipro, biaxin, ceftin
63. Antitussive agens to stop cough and break up mucus in lungs include ____, _____, ____, ____, ____.
* robitussin, phenergan, tessalon perles, humabid, mucinex
64. T or F: phenergan is a multi-purpose drug, it is also an anti-emetic.
65. T or F: Do not give cough meds w/ narcotics (Tylenol w/ codeine)
to a pt w/ pneumonia b/c it depresses the CNS system causing depression of the respiratory system?
66. TB is an infectious disease caused by a ___ + ____ (mycobacterium tuberculosis).
* gram + bacilli
67. T or F: the most common cause of TB in the elderly is from
68. TB most commonly affects the _____, but can occur in other areas (kidney, bones, etc…).
69. T or F: TB is on the rise, it has increased 20% in the last
70. T or F: The WHO estimated 1/3 of the world population is infected
w/ TB, highest in Africa.
71. T or F: TB is acquired thru droplets (close, freq, prolonged
contact w/ infection person).
72. The process of getting TB starts w/the tubercle bacilli being inhaled and passing thru the airways where
it is deposited on the ___ surface, ____ then accumulate, the infection spreads to the ___ and circulatory system (this is
when symptoms appear).
* alveolar, WBC, lymph
73. Inflammation and bacilli produce small, firm, white ___ which compresses on the lung (cells gather and
blood vessels become compressed and ___ can occur).
* nodule, necrosis
74. T or F: The nodule center is soft and cheesy and it will always show up on a CXR?
75. TB assessment may be hard b/c symptoms do not show up until infection has spread to the lymph and circulatory
system, the first symptom is usually a ___ ____ ____, fatigue, ____(loss of appetite) weight loss, irregular menses.
* low grade fever, anorexia
76. As TB progresses a dry cough turns into a ___ cough, there will be ___ pain, ___ which is blood tinged
sputum, dyspnea, and drenching ____ _____.
* productive, pleuritic, hemoptysis, night sweats
77. TB is dx w/ the TB test ______ or a CXR; bacteriological studies are done on the ___ (acid fast bacilli).
* Mantoux, sputum
78. T or F: A positive case of TB must be reported to the
Dept of health, and the gov’t must pay for meds if a pt cannot afford them.
79.T or F: Nursing care for TB includes wearing a mask b/c pt on respiratory isolation,
discarding of tissue/sputum properly, hand washing, and nutrition and hydration.
80. Dx test for TB?
* CXR, ABG, PFT, Bronchoscopy
81. Medications used for B include __which appears to inhibit RNA synthesis, ____ which inhibits RNA synthesis
by blocking RNA transcription in the susceptible organism.
* Ethambutol, rifampin
82. Other drugs used to tx TB include ____ which inhibits Myco. Cell wall synthesis and interferes w/ metabolism
, this was the first drug for TB, prevents cell from being re-made.
* INH (isoniazid)
83. T or F: Sara’s husband Jim is sick of reading these
84. The other type of drugs used to tx TB streptomycin type ____ and _____ to help open up the airway of the
* antibiotics, bronchodilators.
85. T or F: Amanda freaking rocks for making up all the questions
over spring break?