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Nursing School

Middle Age and Aged Quiz
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1.  Middle age is from __-___ yrs old and aged is from ___-____.

*  45-65,  65-death


2.  This group is the biggest group of voters, planning for retirement, and have the highest divorce rate?

*  middle age


3.  This group is adjusting to retirement, death of spouse/loved ones, hanging out w/ own age, volunteering, and may be giving up driver’s license?

*  aged


4.  The aged are in Eriksons ___vs. ____and it is often assumed the elderly are old and non-productive, belong in a home, confused and senile, and HOH w/ poor vision.

*  integrity vs. despair


5.  Young adult thru middle age suffer physiological changes that are influenced by these 4 things?

*  heredity, environment, lifestyle, stress


6.  Physiological changes of the middle ages include blood vessels become less ____, vessels become obstructed by ___ or ____, cardiac output ___ and chronic illness begins.

*  elastic, calcium deposits or fatty acids, decreases


7.  Physiological changes of the aged include stroke volume and cardiac output diminish by ___-___%, the HR at rest remains unchanged but takes ___ to return to normal after exertion, vessels continue to lose ____, valves ___, and calcification and fibrosis of arteries continues.

*  30-40, longer, elasticity, stiffen


8.  T or F:  low O2 is a common cause of death in elderly due to decreased blood flow to heart/brain/liver/lungs/kidneys?

*  T


9.  Cardiovascular assessment includes an H&P.  This includes such things as?

*  smoking, family hx, occupation, meds, illness, observations, and touch


10.  _______ is a broad term applied to any number of pathological conditions where there is thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arteries.

*  arteriosclerosis


11.  ____ is thickening and hardening due to placque development.

*  atherosclerosis


12.  Tx for atherosclerosis includes___ and ___, and medications such as ____ and ____.

*  diet changes, cessation of smoking, vasodilators, hyperlipidemics


13.  Meds used for atherosclerosis include the vasodilator ___ and hyperlipidemic meds such as ____, _____,_____, _____.

*  hydralazine, zocor, lipitor, tricor, crestor


14.  T or F:  HTN is more prevalent in African Americans, elderly, obese?

*  T


15.  Name the 6 causes of HTN?

*  heredity (biggest factor), arteriosclerosis, diet, stress, increased workload to heart (obesity), kidney disease (diabetes)


16.  Pre-hypertension which may require meds is __-__/____-____.

*  120-139/80-89


17.  When assessing BP make sure you have the right size ___, you check VS before giving meds, and you assess for signs/symptoms of HTN such as ___, ___, ____, ___, ____.

*  cuff, headache, epistaxis, blurred vision, dyspnea, dizziness, red face


18.  Pt teaching for HTN includes ___, taking your ___ daily, and taking your medications daily.

*  diet, weights


19.  T or F:  It is normal to have dizzy spells when standing up fast when you first start taking BP meds (orthostatic hypotension)

*  T


20.  Name the 5 classes of anti-hypertensive meds?

*  ace inhibitors, angiotension II receptor blockers, beta-adrenergic blockers, calcium channel blockers, vasodilators


21.  ____ ___ (angiotensin-converting enzyme) block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, it also decreases aldosterone levels; this drug results in _____.

*  ace inhibitors, vasodilation


22. _____ is a vasoconstrictor that will increase BP and ___ will also increase BP.

*  angiotensin II, aldosterone


23.  Ace inhibitors end in “___” and there are 6 types?

*  “PRIL,”  captopril, benazepril, enalapril, quinapril, ramipril, lisinopril



24.  Captopril = _____, benazepril = ____, enalapril = _____, quinapril = ______, ramipril = ______, lisinopril = _____.

*  capoten, lotensin, vasotec, accupril, altace, prinivil or zestril


25.  ______receptor blockers go directly to angiotensin II receptor, this blocks vasoconstriction, secretion of aldosterone, and the effects are seen on the vascular ___muscle and the ___glands.

*  angiotensin II, smooth, adrenal


26.  Angiotensin II receptor blockers end in “___” and the 3 types are?

*  “TAN,” losartan, irbesartan, valsartan


27.  Losartan = ____, irbesartan = _____, valsartan = ______.

*  cozaar, avapro, diovan


28.  ____blockers reduce myocardial stimulation, reduces oxygen demand by heart, decreases myocardial contractility, this med will not only decrease BP, but ___ as well.

*  beta-adrenergic blockers, HR


29.  T or F:  Beta-adrenergic blockers are the most common HTN drugs prescribed?

*  T


30.  Beta-adrenergic blockers end in “ __” and they are 5 types?

*  “OLOL,” propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol, nadolol, timolol


31.  Propranolol = ____, atenolol = ____, metoprolol = ____, nadolol = _____.

*  inderal, tenormin, lopressor, corgard


32.  ____ ___ blockers inhibit the transport of calcium into the myocardial and vascular smooth muscle cells.

*  calcium channel


33.  T or F: Calcium into heart muscle will excite heart and cause arrhythmias and cause increased BP

*  T


34.  Name the  4 types of calcium channel blockers?

*  diltiazem (cardizem), verapamil (calan), nifedipine (procardia), amlodipine (norvasc)


35.  ______relax smooth muscle in the arterioles resulting in vasodilation, this was first group of anti HTN drugs discovered, examples include ___ and ___.

*  vasodilators, hydrolazine (apresoline), minoxidil (loniten)


36.  Name the other three classes of cardiovascular meds?

*  diuretics, anti-platelet agents, and anti-arrhythmics


37.  Name the 4 types of diuretics?

*  lasix (furosemide), bumex (bumetanide), HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide), aldactone


38.  Lasix is a diuretic that removes fluid quickly and requires a __ supplement.

*  K+


39.  Bumex is also a diuretic that requires a K+ supplement, it works slower than Lasix.  Both of these drugs inhibit the reabsorption of ___ and __ in the loop of Henle.

*  Na, Cl


40.  HCTZ is a diuretic that  inhibits reabsorption of Na in the ___ ___ .

*  distal tubule


41.  Aldactone is a __ sparing diuretic that causes the loss of ___ and __, but saves K+ and ___ ions.

*  potassium, sodium bicarb, Ca, hydrogen


42.  Name the 4 types of anti-platelets “blood thinners?”

*  plavix, ASA, trental, pletal


43.  ____ and ___ are two common blood thinners that inhibit platelet aggregation (stops clumping together which leads to clots which leads to strokes and MI’s.

*  Plavix, ASA (aspirin)


44.  ___is an anti-platelet agent that increases flexibility of RBC’s to decrease blood viscosity, it works great for intermittent claudicating.

*  trental


45.  ___ ___ is when blood gets thick and sluggish and pools in LE, causes leg pain and edema.

*  intermittent claudicating


46.  ____ is an anti-platelet that inhibits is enzyme that results in vasodilation and also used for intermittent claudicating.

*  pletal


47.  This type of drug increase the force (strength or power) of the myocardial contraction; increases cardiac output and decreases the heart rate by decreasing the conduction thru the SA and AV nodes?

*  anti-arrhythmics


48.  ____ aka ____ is an anti-arrhythmics that is often given, the apical pulse must be 60 or above to administer.

*  Lanoxin (digoxin)


49.  Name three common cardiac dx tests?

*  EKG, Echo, Cardiac Catheterization


50.  An ____ measures electrical impulses across the heart, an ___ uses ultrasonic waves to detect valve disorders, congenital disorders, fluid around the heart, and heart tumors, the ____determines BP and blood flow into the heart chambers (accurately measures blood gases)

*  ekg, echo, cardiac cath


51.  The changes in the respiratory system are influenced by these factors as you age?

*  heredity, lifestyle, environment


52.  T or F:  Physiological changes of the respiratory system are gradual from middle age to aged, unless disease process interferes

*  T


53.  As you age the ribcage becomes stiff from _____ and the air sacs decrease and die off causing changes in the alveolocapillary membrane structure, there is also ___ respiratory muscle strength, ___cough and gag reflex, as well as ___ lung expansion.

*  calcification, decreased, decreased, decreased


54.  Respiratory assessment looks at your smoking hx, family hx, occupation, last___xray, medications, and respiratory infections.  The physical is done by looking and touching (SOB, breath sounds, skin temp, RR, Wheezing, etc…)

*  chest


55.  T or F:  respiratory system causes fatigue more than any other system in the body when it is stressed

*  t


56.  ______ is an acute infection of the parenchyma of the lungs; most commonly caused by bacteria.

*  pneumonia


57.  Pneumonia occurs when an organism enters the____, multiplies and produces inflammatory response, then there is an outpouring of ___and accumulation and migration of ___(first defense against infection).

*  alveoli, fluid, neutrophils


58.  Assessment of pneumonia includes an ___in temp which may be abrupt w/ chills and shaking, tachyon/dyspnea, ___chest pain, cough w/sputum, crackles/rales or wheezing.

*increase, pleuritic


59.  Dx of pneumonia includes assessing sign/symptoms a ___xray and a ___Sample.

*  chest, sputum


60.  Nursing care of pneumonia is to relieve _____distress, promote removal of drainage, control infection, maintain fluid and nutritional intake, and promote ___ and comfort.

*  respiratory, rest


61.  T or F:  Nursing care for pneumonia includes discarding tissues/sputum properly, get pt OOB for meals as tol, and putting pillow behind shoulder blades to help w/ lung expansion.

*  T


62.  Medications used to tx pneumonia include IV antibiotics such as ____, ____, ____, ____, PO meds on d/c inclue ____, _____, ____, _____.

*  zithromax, rocephin, cipro, cefobid, zithromax, cipro, biaxin, ceftin


63.  Antitussive agens to stop cough and break up mucus in lungs include ____, _____, ____, ____, ____.

*  robitussin, phenergan, tessalon perles, humabid, mucinex


64.  T or F:  phenergan is a multi-purpose drug, it is also an anti-emetic.

*  T


65.  T or F:  Do not give cough meds w/ narcotics (Tylenol w/ codeine) to a pt w/ pneumonia b/c it depresses the CNS system causing depression of the respiratory system?

*  T


66.  TB is an infectious disease caused by a ___ + ____ (mycobacterium tuberculosis).

*  gram + bacilli


67.  T or F:  the most common cause of TB in the elderly is from strep?

*  T


68.  TB most commonly affects the _____, but can occur in other areas (kidney, bones, etc…).

Lungs (alveolar surface)


69.  T or F:  TB is on the rise, it has increased 20% in the last 10 years?

*  t


70.  T or F:  The WHO estimated 1/3 of the world population is infected w/ TB, highest in Africa.

*  T


71.  T or F:  TB is acquired thru droplets (close, freq, prolonged contact w/ infection person).

*  T


72.  The process of getting TB starts w/the tubercle bacilli being inhaled and passing thru the airways where it is deposited on the ___ surface, ____ then accumulate, the infection spreads to the ___ and circulatory system (this is when symptoms appear).

*  alveolar, WBC, lymph


73.  Inflammation and bacilli produce small, firm, white ___ which compresses on the lung (cells gather and blood vessels become compressed and ___ can occur).

*  nodule, necrosis


74. T or F:  The nodule center is soft and cheesy and it will always show up on a CXR?

* T


75.  TB assessment may be hard b/c symptoms do not show up until infection has spread to the lymph and circulatory system, the first symptom is usually a ___ ____ ____, fatigue, ____(loss of appetite) weight loss, irregular menses.

*  low grade fever, anorexia


76.  As TB progresses a dry cough turns into a ___ cough, there will be ___ pain, ___ which is blood tinged sputum, dyspnea, and drenching ____ _____.

*  productive, pleuritic, hemoptysis, night sweats


77.  TB is dx w/ the TB test ______ or a CXR; bacteriological studies are done on the ___ (acid fast bacilli).

*  Mantoux, sputum


78.  T or F:   A positive case of TB must be reported to the Dept of health, and the gov’t must pay for meds if a pt cannot afford them.

*  T


79.T or F:   Nursing care for TB includes wearing a mask b/c pt on respiratory isolation, discarding of tissue/sputum properly, hand washing, and nutrition and hydration.

*  T


80.  Dx test for TB?

*  CXR, ABG, PFT, Bronchoscopy


81.  Medications used for B include __which appears to inhibit RNA synthesis, ____ which inhibits RNA synthesis by blocking RNA transcription in the susceptible organism.

*  Ethambutol, rifampin


82.  Other drugs used to tx TB include ____ which inhibits Myco. Cell wall synthesis and interferes w/ metabolism , this was the first drug for TB, prevents cell from being re-made.

*  INH (isoniazid)


83.  T or F:  Sara’s husband Jim is sick of reading these damn questions?

*  T


84.  The other type of drugs used to tx TB streptomycin type ____ and _____ to help open up the airway of the lungs.

*  antibiotics, bronchodilators.


85.  T or F:  Amanda freaking rocks for making up all the questions over spring break?

*  T

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