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Nursing School

The Preschooler
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we went through this very fast and the power point notes are pretty detailed, so there wasn't much to write down...

The Preschooler (3-5 years)


- Growth & Development: preparation for school years



- Biological Development: 5 pounds/year, 2.5-3 inches of height/year



- Proportional Changes: legs longer, more slender, graceful, agile



- Gross Motor Skills: walk/run by age 3, rides tricycle, walks on tiptoe, alternates feet down steps



-Fine Motor Skills: 3 dress & undress w/buttons; 4 w/zippers, 5 can tie shoes



-Psychosocial Development:

- Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt: completes tasks, self-motivated (has motivation to start tasks), sense of accomplishment for being “the best,” praise accomplishments, give them minor chores, let them be part of decision making; they learn right from wrong (Superego)


- Piaget: 2-7 years Pre-Operational Stage: from totally egocentric to social awareness, egocentric communication, thinks everyone thinks like they do, some magical thinking, they take everything literally


- Spiritual Development: imitating & assimilating behavior, they learn simple stories (from the Bible, for example), they have their own ideas/frame of reference for who God is


-Social Development: no stranger fear, tolerate more separation, can work through fears/anxieties through play, routine/security still important, often very fearful


- Language: 2100 words, major mode of communication by age 5

- ages 3 & 4: “telegraphic” speech: no full sentences, just essential parts of speech, asks millions of questions, talks incessantly even if no one is listening, don’t require answers from others

- ages 4& 5: uses more words, asks a lot of questions & wants answers, can only follow 1 command at a time, will persist on questions until answered, question asking is at its peak

- by end of age 5 uses speech correctly & names opposites

- stuttering/stammering d/t vocabularly growing faster than they can process, normal part of development, children w/a true stutter will do it before age 5


- Personal-Social Behavior: more social, want to please parents


- Play: interact w/small group, Associative play: imitative, dramatic, imaginative, role-play, gender stereotyping


- Sexuality: ask why? Want to know how a woman gets pregnant, just answer the question directly & succinctly (they don’t want to know all the details, just briefly answer them), they are aware of anatomic differences, parents need to be honest


- Nutrition: 1800 calories/day, 3 & 4 year olds are picky eaters, won’t eat off a big plate (need own small plate), probably can’t sit through meals


- Sleep/Rest: 12 hrs/night, may nap, tough time staying in bed, will prolong nighttime rituals; may have sleep terrors which are different from nightmares, let them sleep just keep them safe


- Injury Prevention: 4, 5, & 6 will listen to your rules but by 8& 9 don’t care about what adults say

NOTHING on this website is to take the place of a physician's advice. Everything in this site is meant to be only a helpful tool for me and my nursing student friends.

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