1.) The newborn is from ___ to ___wks.
* birth to 4 weeks
2.) T or F: The newborn
is going through more physiological changes than any other time during life.
3.) The first system to change in the newborn is the ____ system,
the establishment of ______.
* respiratory, respirations
4.) 3 factors involved in process of initiation of respiration
include ___ ___ ___.
* physical, sensory, chemical
5.) The ___factor involved in initiating respirations includes the
change of pressure from intrauterine to extra uterine life.
6.) ___ factors include cold stimulation to help breathing, pain,
touch and light.
7.) ____ factors that initiate respirations include ___ __ which is
period where placenta has stopped functioning until lungs take over, the baby
will not breath for a few seconds, the O2 is ____and pH are ___, and the CO2 is ____.
* chemical, transitory asphyxia, decreased, increased
8.) There are three processes of initiation of respirations, this
includes the 3 ___, expansion of ___, and removal of ___ ___.
* factors, alveoli, lung fluid
9.) When baby born _____ of lung tissue, thorax, diaphragm, and respiratory
muscles b/c they’ve never been used before.
10.) The lipoprotein that helps facilitate the expansion of the lungs
by decreasing surface tension is called ______.
11.) Surfactant detected in utero after the ___th week of gestation,
if baby born before this time artificial surfactant is used.
12.) If mother in pre-mature labor an injection of ___ is given to
help produce surfactant.
13.) The removal of ___ ___ is squeezed out during vaginal birth;
C-sections will be suctioned, after several minutes of breathing lung expansion is _____.
* lung fluid, complete
14.) The second system to change in the newborn is the _____system.
15.) The total blood volume of newborn is __ml, depending on how cord
is clamped, usually clamped after cord stops pulsating which gives extra ___-__ml blood.
* 300, 50-100
16.) Some babies cannot handle the extra blood from the cord and develop
____ leading to ___.
* hyperbilirubemia, jaundice
17.) T or F: The blood
values of newborn are higher than any other period in lifecycle
18.) Newborn lab values: Hematocrit_____,
Hemoglobin_____, RBC___, WBC____
* 44-72, 14.5-22.5 grams, 5-7.5 million, 9,000-30,000
19.) Newborns have trouble with temp regulation due to a ___ surface
area related to ___ ___; leads to more heat loss from exposure.
* large, muscle mass
20.) Newborns also cannot maintain temp due to thin layer of ___ fat
and they cannot ___ which generates heat and increases ____ ____.
* SQ, shiver, metabolic rate
21.) 4 ways of heat loss ?
* conduction, convection, radiation, evaporation
22.) ____is the transfer of heat from warm object to cooler object
(touch newborn w/ cold hands).
23.) ______is transfer of heat from baby to surrounding air (what
ever environment temp is baby will respond to .)
24.) _____ is heat loss from indirect contact, warm to cold (warm
bassinet before putting baby in it)
25.) _________is excessive heat lose which occurs at birth (baby quickly
dried and wrapped upon delivery)
26.) Newborns lack shivering mechanism, they produce heat from ___________.
* non-shivering thermo genesis
27.) Newborns have ___ __ located between scapula, around neck, behind
sternum and in deep layers of __.
* brown fat, kidneys
28.) Brown fat is darker in color due to rich ___supply and composes
__-__% of newborns total body weight.
* blood, 2-6
29.) A chemical reaction occurs in brown fat which breaks down ___
into ___ and ___ __ producing heat, heat distributed by blood to body.
* triglycerides, glycerol, fatty acids
30.) Brown fat appears between __-__wks gestation and continues to
increase up to ___wks after birth, unless depleted by ___ ___.
* 26-30, 5, cold stress
31.) Newborns conserve heat just like adults through peripheral ___,
and they also lower their surface area by curling into ____ ___.
* vasoconstriction, fetal position
32.) ___ ___ is when
newborns constantly prevent heat lose, conserve heat and produce heat leading to this condition.
* cold stress
33.) An increase in metabolic rate and increase in calorie consumption
can lead to _____ and also increase ___ requirements which ___ surfactant.
* hypoglycemia, O2, decreases
34.) Hypoglycemia is dangerous in newborn b/c ____ ___ can occur due
to lack of ___ nourishment to brain cells.
* brain damage, glucose
35.) _____ tool looks at physical and neuromuscular findings to assess
36.) ___ ___ is color change when deep color develops over one side
of body while other side remains pale (clown).
* Harlequin sign
37.) _____ is a lacy pattern of dilated blood vessels under skin,
result of circulation fluctuations, may last several hours to several weeks.
38.) ___ ____ “newborn rash” is a per follicular eruption of lesions that are firm, vary in size and consist of white or pale yellow
papule or pustule, could be anywhere on body, no tx.
* erythema toxicum
39.) Telangiectatic nevi are also known as ___ ___, pale pink or red
spots found on eyelids, nose, and nape of neck, fade by age 2.
* stork bites
40.) Nevus flammeus aka ___ ___ ____ is a capillary hemangioma directly
below epidermis, non-elevated, red to purple area of dense capillaries.
* port wine stain
41.) Nevus vacuous aka __ ___ is a capillary hemangioma, consists
of newly formed and enlarged capillaries in dermal and sub dermal layers, raised, clearly delineated, dark red, rough surface
in head region.
* strawberry mark
42.) The anterior fonanelle should measure __-___cm long and ___-___cm
wide, if will close w/in ___-___months.
* 3-4, 2-3, 12-18months
43.) The posterior fontanel will close w/in ___-___wks.
44.) A bulging fontanelle means ____ ____ from fluid and a depressed
fontanelle indicates ____.
* intracranial pressure, dehydration
45.) ______is a collection of blood resulting from ruptured blood
vessels between surface of cranial bone and ____ membrane, emerges first and second day after birth, disappear in 2-3 wks,
does not cross suture lines, feels firm and no bruising.
46.) ____ ___ is localized soft area of scalp, present at birth, crosses
suture lines, reabsorbed w/in 12 hours or few days after birth, bruising may be present.
* caput succedaneum
47.) ___ ____ appears when newborn cries, affected side is immobile
and eyelid fissure widens, may result from forceps, disappears w/in days to 3 weeks.
* facial paralysis
48.) ___ ___ appear in 10% of newborns sclera, caused by vascular
changes in vascular tension or ocular pressure during birth, lasts a few weeks.
* subconjunctival hemorrhages
49.) Newborns have immature ___ structures and do not have tears until
50.) ____ ___ is due to poor neuromuscular control, cross-eyed and
* transient strabismus
51.) ___ ___ on lower central incisor may be found occasionally and
removed to prevent aspiration.
* precocious teeth
52.) ___ ___ may be present just in front of ear, ligated at base
and allowed to slough off.
* preauricular tag
53.) Extra nipples called _____ ___.
* supernumerary nipples
54.) The chest circumference is ___cm smaller than head